One key historical figure whose rightful place in American history has been ignored is Robert F. Williams.
Williams was the forefather of the Black Power movement and broke dramatic new ground by internationalizing the African American struggle. Negroes with Guns is not only an electrifying look at an historically erased leader, but also provides a thought-provoking examination of Black radicalism and resistance and serves as a launching pad for the study of Black liberation philosophies. Read more at http://newsreel.org/video/NEGROES-WITH-GUNS
Not widely written about is Williams' association with the Revolutionary Action Movement, also known as RAM. Williams served as international chairman of RAM, a key force in the formation and national expansion across the US of the Black Panther Party. What was unique about RAM is that it was an underground or clandestine organization. It infiltrated CORE, SNCC and other civil rights organizations. The Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM) was the only secular political organization that Malcolm X joined before his fateful trip to Mecca in 1964 . Early in 1963, Malcolm took the young Philadelphia militant Max Stanford under his wing. During the last few years of Malcolm’s life, few persons were as closely associated with him as was the young Max Stanford, who later became known as Muhammad Ahmad. Stanford was a student militant who had influenced both the National Student Youth movement and the Studentsfor a Democratic Society in the early 1960s with a vision of radical black nationalism. Stanford fused the thought of Robert F. Williams on armed self defense with the philosophy of Malcolm X on black self-determination. To these tenets, Stanford added a sophisticated Marxian revolutionary philosophy, which he derived from a close personal association with the legendary Queen Mother Audley Moore. Malcolm put his blessings on Stanford’s Revolutionary Action Movement by becoming an officer (International Spokesman) of the organization. RAM, in turn, served as the leading organized proponent of the visions of Malcolm X, Robert F. Williams, and Queen Mother Moore. read more at http://www.lexisnexis.com/documents/academic/upa_cis/blackpower%20movement%20part%203.pdf
50 Years Later: Freedom Summers And Robert Williams Black Self-Defense, 1964 And 2014
One enduring myth is that the Black Liberation Movement in 1964 was entirely pacifist. In fact, armed men and women played a prominent role in Freedom Summer and the movement as a whole, as historians Akinyele Omowale Umoja and Charles Cobb, Jr., among others, have documented. Though they were unable to save Chaney, Schwerner and Goodman, the armed locals undoubtedly prevented others from meeting the same fate.
Perhaps the best-known advocate of armed self-defense was Robert F. Williams, head of the North Carolina chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In the face of continuous state and paramilitary violence, Williams insisted that black people had the right to defend themselves by, in the words of Malcolm X, “any means necessary.” The repression Williams faced as a result was relentless and he eventually sought refuge in Cuba.