The National Black Caucus of State Legislators – A Historical Reference

Black State Legislators from Reconstruction to the Present

Legislative Black Caucuses

The National Black Caucus of State Legislators

The modern Voting Rights movement can be traced to the 1944 decision of the US Supreme Court in Smith v. Allright to outlaw the White Primary in Texas.http://texaspolitics.utexas.edu/archive/html/vce/features/0503_01/smith.html .  This was a key decision argued by Thurgood Marshall. Prior to the Court’s ruling, the Democratic party in the South (Dixiecrats) was allowed to set its own internal rules. This meant that the outcome of the Democratic Primary determined the outcome of the election. Therefore, all white primaries meant that African Americans were effectively excluded from  political power.  http://books.google.com/books?id=npem7JszWfkC&pg=PA108&dq=smith+v+allright&num=8&client=internal-uds&cd=1&source=uds . As African Americans returning from fighting abroad in World War 11 began to advocate for more political representation, the white power structure (in the South) reacted to the ruling in Smith v. Allright  by adopting schemes to ensure that if a large number of African Americans entered the electorate, they would not have the ability to elect candidates of their choice.

COLORLINES – Texas’ Road To Victory in Its Decades Long Fight Against …

http://colorlines.com/archives/2012/07/texas_vs_the_voting_rights_act_still.html

… the number of African Americans registered to vote after Smith v Allwrightdiscriminatory votingpoll tax, and no doubt Holder had Smith v

The Nation – Texas’ Road To Victory in Its Decades-Long Fight Against …

http://www.thenation.com/blog/168850/texass-road-victory-its-decades-long-fight-against-voting-rights

A fully nourished NAACP legal team was needed in the years after Smith v. Allwright, …discriminatory votingpoll tax, and no doubt Holder had Smith v.

Black Victory: The Rise and Fall of the White Primary in Texas Merline Pitre, published 2003, 296 pages

The 1982 amendments to the Section 2 of the Voting Right Act of 1965, followed by the US Supreme Court decision in the 1986 Thornburg v. Gingles case fundamentally changed the picture of Black office holding in the US.

Minority Representation and the Quest for Voting Equality Bernard Grofman, published 1994, 188 pages

A Voting Rights Odyssey: Black Enfranchisement in Georgia Laughlin McDonald, published 2003, 254 pages In the South alone, the number of Black elected officials went from 1179 in 1973 to 4924 in 1993. The ability of jurisdictions to draw single-member districts in which African American voters were a majority (almost always forced to do so through litigation or enforcement of the amended Voting Right Act), allowed African American voters for the first time since#reconstruction to elect candidates of their choice. Between 1972 and 1992, the number of African Americans in Congress from the South went from zero to seventeen. The emergence of a large and nationwide Congressional Black Caucus is a direct result of the historical struggle for African American voting rights. The creation of majority black single member congressional districts following the vigorous enforcement of sections 2 and 5 of the Voting Rights Act is why today we have such a large number of African Americans in Congress(especially from the South).

The National Black Caucus of State Legislators

The National Black Caucus of State legislators was founded in the late 1970’s by African Americans state legislators who felt excluded from  the National caucus of State legislators. While the number of African American state legislators who formed the Caucus was small at that time small, their ranks have expanded significantly since then.  This growth was no accident. It was a direct result of the continuing struggle of African Americans for political representation. In their scholarly article entitled, The Impact of the Voting Rights Act on Black Representation in Southern State Legislatures  http://www.socsci.uci.edu/~bgrofman/40%20Grofman-Handley-Impact%20of%20VRA%20on%20representation.pdf , authors Bernard Grofman and Lisa Handley document the reasons for the substantial rise in Black state legislators in the South between 1965 and 1985.  As was the case with congressional representation and representation at the city council and county commission levels, the increase in African American state legislators, according to Grofman and Handley, can be tied directly to enforcement of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. “This did not result from a larger number of Blacks being elected in white-dominated districts, but rather from the increase in the number of districts with a majority black population…The increase in the proportion of districts which had a black majority is largely the result of enforcement of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which led to greater use of single-member districts and the elimination of districts that diluted the black vote.” The Voting Rights Act was amended by Congress in 1982 to establish clear guidelines for determining  minority vote dilution under Section 2 of the VRA. The Supreme Court decision in 1986 applied the new vote dilution standards  in the Thornburg v. Gingles case (North Carolina) http://books.google.com/books?id=keSqqcf__fYC&pg=PA47&lpg=PA47&dq=thornburg+v+gingles&source=bl&ots=V0UXJT99C9&sig=QJQpjez8bO-bVLHxbmYfAqkAU-g&hl=en&sa=X&ei=6RB0VPOKDZGtyQS_tYGYAQ&ved=0CEcQ6AEwBjgK#v=onepage&q=thornburg%20v%20gingles&f=false and basically established as law that if a jurisdiction had enough African American voters in which a cohesive district could be drawn in which  those voters are the majority, if those voters are politically cohesive,  and if the white population votes as a bloc to defeat the candidates of choice of African American voters, then that jurisdiction had an obligation to draw such a district. In Gingles, as the case is commonly known among voting rights activists, the Supreme Court  sided unanimously with African American voters who had filed suit under Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act. http://www.justice.gov/crt/about/vot/sec_2/about_sec2.php  The Black voters had claimed that the redistricting plan created by the North Carolina General Assembly was discriminatory in that it created 7 new districts where Blacks would not be able to elect candidates of their choosing. “The Court found that “the legacy of official discrimination … acted in concert with the multimember districting scheme to impair the ability of … cohesive groups of black voters to participate equally in the political process and to elect candidates of their choice.”[1] The ruling invalidated districts of the North Carolina General Assembly and led to more single-member districts in state legislatures.”  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thornburg_v._Gingles Of course, that was then. And Thurgood Marshall was on the Court. Today, we have Clarence Thomas and Anthony Scalia.   National Black Caucus of State Legislators: NBCSL http://www.nbcsl.org/ NBCSL’s mission is to develop research and training programs to enhance the effectiveness of our members, as they consider legislation and of public policy … Annual Legislative Conference – NBCSL: National Black Caucus of … http://nbcsl.org/conference2014/ The National Black Caucus of State Legislators (NBCSL) invites you to its 38th Annual Legislative Conference in Dallas, TX. NBCSL’s 2014 conference will … National Black Caucus of State Legislators – Wikipedia, the free … http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Black_Caucus_of_State_Legislators The National Black Caucus of State Legislators (also known as the NBCSL) is an American political organization composed of African Americans elected to state … National Conference of State Legislatures: Legislative News … http://www.ncsl.org/ News, current events, information and analyisis to support state legislatures. Bipartisan case studies on important issues facing state governments. The Louisiana Legislative Black Caucus: Race and Representation in the … unknown, published 2011, 177 pages African Americans and Political Participation: A Reference Handbook unknown, published 2003, 400 pages Devolution and Black State Legislators: Challenges and Choices in the Twenty … Tyson King-Meadows, Thomas F. Schaller, published 2012, 302 pages Organizing Black America unknown, published 2013, 797 pages Rumor, Repression, and Racial Politics: How the Harassment of Black Elected … George Derek Musgrove, published 2012, 296 pages African American Politics Kendra King, published 2010, 238 pages We Have No Leaders: African Americans in the Post-Civil Rights Era Robert C. Smith, published 1996, 396 pages Sisters in the Statehouse: Black Women and Legislative Decision Making Nadia E. Brown, published 2014, 250 pages

Legislative Black Caucuses

Ohio Legislative Black Caucus – Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_Legislative_Black_Caucus The Ohio Legislative Black Caucus, formally known as the Black Elected Democrats of Ohio (BEDO), is an American political organization composed of African Americans elected to the Ohio General Assembly. Alabama Legislative Black Caucus v. Alabama – SCOTUSblog http://www.scotusblog.com/case-files/cases/alabama-legislative-black-caucus-v-alabama/ Enter your email address to subscribe to updates to this case. Below Argument Opinion Vote Author Term. Whose attorneys contribute to this blog in various capacities, is among counsel to the petitioners in this case. Alabama Legislative Black Caucus files lawsuit over redistricting plans (video) – al.com http://blog.al.com/spotnews/2012/08/alabama_legislative_black_cauc_1.html “The lawsuits asks the federal court to declare these two plans unconstitutional and order the Legislature to start over,” said James Blacksher, a lawyer representing plaintiffs. Florida Legislative Black Caucus Urges Federal Probe of Local Police in Trayvon Martin Case Florida Legislative Black Caucus Urges Federal Probe of Local Police in Trayvon Martin Case democracynow.org – We speak with Florida Democratic State Representative Mia Jones, who fought the passage of Florida’s so-called “Stand Your Ground” law tha… Florida Legislative Black Caucus – CBS Miami http://miami.cbslocal.com/tag/florida-legislative-black-caucus/ 55% off at Hilton Garden Inn. Scott At Odds With Monroe County Supervisor Of Elections Over Early Voting. Governor Rick Scott wants every county to reduce early voting days from 12 to eight and the only thing standing in his way is Monroe County Supervisor of Elections Harry Sawyer. CBS Miami Sections. Legislative Black Caucus – WWAY NewsChannel 3 – Wilmington NC News – wwaytv3.com http://www.wwaytv3.com/news-tags/legislative-black-caucus McIntyre, Fudge celebrate black history month. NC black caucus leader wants McCrory ad off air. Legislative Black Caucus. A congressman and the leader of the black caucus came together Sunday for the 17th annual black history month commemoration. Add new comment.    

Ron Waters, Chairman Pennsylvania Legislative Black Caucus @ Million Hoodie March!Ron Waters, Chairman Pennsylvania Legislative Black Caucus @ Million Hoodie March! http://techbookonline.com/news.html 3.24.12—Philadelphia Pa: (Nonprofit/Activism): There were no pictures of “Pigs” shooting down “Brothers” on the instant r…

 

California Legislative Black Caucus - 2012 AALT ProgramCalifornia Legislative Black Caucus – 2012 AALT Program

   

Delegate Aisha Braveboy, Legislative Black Caucus of MD, BMORENEWS.com, 11.15.12Delegate Aisha Braveboy, Legislative Black Caucus of MD, BMORENEWS.com, 11.15.12 Delegate Aisha Braveboy, Legislative Black Caucus of MD, BMORENEWS.com, 11.15.12.

   

Sen. Emanuel Jones and Georgia's Legislative Black Caucus Press ConferenceSen. Emanuel Jones and Georgia’s Legislative Black Caucus Press Conference Sen. Jones and other members of Georgia’s Legislative Black Caucus request Governor Deal to veto Senate and House maps.

 

Legislative Black Caucus Prayer Breakfast: Remarks of Elected OfficialsLegislative Black Caucus Prayer Breakfast: Remarks of Elected Officials Elected officials or their designees delivered opening remarks at the Louisiana Legislative Black Caucus Prayer Breakfast on Tuesday, April 16, in the Louisi…

 

Missouri Legislative Black Caucus Awards 2010: Lew MoyeMissouri Legislative Black Caucus Awards 2010: Lew Moye http://www.V-five.com Produced by Elaine Hamilton Shot & Edited by Jordan Kerfeld A profile on Lew Moye, a trailblazer for workplace equality in the auto ind…

     

PA Legislative Black Caucus Event 2-13-13PA Legislative Black Caucus Event 2-13-13

 

NJ Legislative Black Caucus From Trenton To You.NJ Legislative Black Caucus From Trenton To You. From: Asw. Sheila Oliver With Guest: Maretta Hodges, The President of the EOFPANJ.

   

Legislative Black Caucus Members Discuss DHHS ProblemsLegislative Black Caucus Members Discuss DHHS Problems North Carolina Legislative Black Caucus members hold a press conference at the Mecklenburg Public Health Department along with simultaneous press conferences…

 

Brown Appointed Chair of Pennsylvania Legislative Black Caucus.Brown Appointed Chair of Pennsylvania Legislative Black Caucus. During a ceremony in Harrisburg, the Pennsylvania Legislative Black Caucus appointed a new executive board for the upcoming House session. More at www.pahous…

 

43rd Annual Legislative Conference: Networking Luncheon with Iyanla Vanzant43rd Annual Legislative Conference: Networking Luncheon with Iyanla Vanzant

 

Legislative Black Caucus meets to protest possible limiting access to food stampsLegislative Black Caucus meets to protest possible limiting access to food stamps About 30 people protested, arguing now is not the time to cut back assistance—just when Missourians are starting to get back on their feet.

 

Legislative Black Caucuses

Ohio Legislative Black Caucus – Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_Legislative_Black_Caucus The Ohio Legislative Black Caucus, formally known as the Black Elected Democrats of Ohio (BEDO), is an American political organization composed of African Americans elected to the Ohio General Assembly.   SC Legislative Black Caucus Clergy Day At The Dome 2010SC Legislative Black Caucus Clergy Day At The Dome 2010 The South Carolina Legislative Black Caucus hold “Clergy Day At The Dome 2010” where pastors from across South Carolina came together with the 39 members of … The South Carolina Legislative Black Causus http://www.sclbc.org/ Welcome to South Carolina Legislative Black Caucus. We are pleased that you are interested in the efforts of the Caucus. The SC Legislative Black Caucus will take a “lead” role to promote and pass policies that. Stay up-to-date with Caucus news and events. Florida Legislative Black Caucus – CBS Miami http://miami.cbslocal.com/tag/florida-legislative-black-caucus/ 55% off at Hilton Garden Inn. Scott At Odds With Monroe County Supervisor Of Elections Over Early Voting. Governor Rick Scott wants every county to reduce early voting days from 12 to eight and the only thing standing in his way is Monroe County Supervisor of Elections Harry Sawyer. CBS Miami Sections. tn legislative black caucus questions stand your ground law http://www.wsfa.com/story/22869634/tn-legislative-black-caucus-questions-stand-your-ground-law undefined   Miss. Legislative Black Caucus Miss. Legislative Black Caucus Caucus chairman Kenneth Wanye Jones speaks after endorsing Wheretogo411.com, and asking Governor Phil Bryant to expand use across other state agencies Reece leads Legislative Black Caucus – Politics Extra http://cincinnati.com/blogs/politics/2013/01/11/reece-leads-legislative-black-caucus/ COLUMBUS — Two Cincinnatians will lead the Legislative Black Caucus for the next two years. State Rep Alicia Reece, D-Bond Hill, became the first African-American woman from Cincinnati to lead the Legislative Black Caucus this week. She is in her third two-year term in the Ohio House. Scott scolded by legislative black caucus – StAugustine.com http://staugustine.com/news/florida-news/2013-01-16/scott-scolded-legislative-black-caucus TALLAHASSEE (AP) — Members of the Florida Legislature‘s black caucus spent an hour Tuesday letting Republican Gov Rick Scott know that they didn’t think he was doing a good job, especially on the issues important to their constituencies. Arkansas Legislative Black Caucus concerned about steel mill plan http://www.eldoradonews.com/news/2013/02/12/arkansas-legislative-black-caucus-concer-752001.php News Stories Business Directory. LITTLE ROCK (AP) — Members of the Arkansas Legislative Black Caucus said Monday they’re concerned that Gov Mike Beebe’s proposal to issue state-backed bonds to attract a $1 billion steel mill doesn’t include a requirement that the company hire African-American workers. Michigan Legislative Black Caucus to challenge Michigan redistricting with lawsuit – MLive.com http://www.mlive.com/politics/index.ssf/2011/12/michigan_legislative_black_cau_1.html The Michigan Legislative Black Caucus is expected to announce a lawsuit challenging portions of the new boundaries approved for districts in the state Legislature.   Georgia Legislative Black Caucus Press Conference - 03.19.09Georgia Legislative Black Caucus Press Conference – 03.19.09 Sen. Emanuel Jones (D – Decatur)   Georgia Legislative Black Caucus – New Georgia Encyclopedia http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/government-politics/georgia-legislative-black-caucus Next black elected to the legislature after 1907 was Senator Leroy Johnson in 1962. In 1972 fourteen blacks were elected to the house and only two to the senate. The Supreme Court, in Gray v. Sanders (1963), eliminated the county unit system and required that Georgia follow the one-man, one-vote principle.   Georgia Legislative Black Caucus: Remembering Our Legends and Honoring Our TorchbearersGeorgia Legislative Black Caucus: Remembering Our Legends and Honoring Our Torchbearers In collaboration with the Azalea City Chapter of The Links Inc., the Auburn Avenue Research Library will host the exhibit, Georgia Legislative Black Caucus. …   Virginia Legislative Black Caucus 18 Strong Capitol Reception – Democratic Party of Virginia http://www.vademocrats.org/events/rsvp/virginia-legislative-black-caucus-18-strong-capitol-reception 00 pm – 8:00 pm EST. VMFA Virginia Museum of Fine Arts200 N BoulevardRichmond, VA 23220. Javascript is required to view this map.   Virginia Legislative Black Caucus press conferenceVirginia Legislative Black Caucus press conference The Virginia Legislative Black Caucus unveil their legislative agenda for the 2007 session of the General Assembly. Jan. 16, 2007. Illinois Legislative Black Caucus Chair Signs on As Co-Sponsor of Freedom to Marry Legislation – Illinois … http://www.illinoisunites.org/news/illinois-legislative-black-caucus-chair-signs-on-as-co-sponsor-of-freedom-to-marry-legislation CHICAGO – April 23, 2013 – As a final vote in the Illinois House of Representatives draws closer, the leader of the Illinois Legislative Black Caucus announced today his signing on as one of the chief co-sponsors of the Religious Freedom and Marriage Fairness Act. The Georgia Legislative Black Caucus and the Theory of White Flight – RedState http://www.redstate.com/lineholder/2011/04/01/the-georgia-legislative-black-caucus-and-the-theory-of-white-flight/ Fulton County is 44.5% white and 44.1% black. Milton, formed a year later, currently part of Fulton County, is 76.6% white and 9% black. Chattahoochee Hills, formed in 2007, currently in Fulton County, is 68.6% white and 28% black. Dunwoody, created in 2008, currently in DeKalb County, is 69.8% white and 12.6% black. Legislative Black Caucus challenges Louisiana House redistricting plan – NAACP LDF http://www.naacpldf.org/news/legislative-black-caucus-challenges-louisiana-house-redistricting-plan The Legislative Black Caucus and three civil rights organizations Friday called on the US Justice Department to reject the House redistricting plan drawn at a recent special session of the Louisiana Legislature.   Del. Aisha Braveboy, Chair of Legislative Black Caucus of Maryland, 4.13.13Del. Aisha Braveboy, Chair of Legislative Black Caucus of Maryland, 4.13.13 Del. Aisha Braveboy, Chair of Legislative Black Caucus of Maryland, 4.13.13. Maryland General Assembly Wrap-up.   LEGISLATIVE BLACK CAUCUS OF MARYLAND, INC http://www.legislativeblkcaucusmd.org/ A Message From Our Chair. Welcome to the website for. The Legislative Black Caucus. Of Maryland, Inc ( LBCM ). It is an honor and a privilege.   TEXAS LEGISLATIVE BLACK CAUCUS – The Handbook of Texas Online – Texas State Historical Association (TSHA) https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/wet03 These eight new state representatives were the largest number of African Americans elected to serve in the Texas legislature since Reconstruction.   Oklahoma Legislative Black Caucus forum at Cameron UniversityOklahoma Legislative Black Caucus forum at Cameron University Oklahoma Legislative Black Caucus Forum at Cameron University with Senator Constance Johnson and Oklahoma 4th Congressional District Nominee Donna Bebo.   Oklahoma Legislative Black Caucus Discuss State Questions – KSWO, Lawton, OK – Wichita Falls, TX – … http://www.kswo.com/story/20000119/oklahoma-legislative-blaqck-caucus-discuss-state Lawton, OKLa._Lawton residents had the chance to find out how a few state questions on Tuesday’s elections could impact them. It’s part of the Oklahoma Legislative Black Caucus‘ Conversation Tour, which has stopped in several cities across the state to educate the community on what’s at stake during this election.   Missouri Legislative Black Caucus Awards 2010: Mamie HughesMissouri Legislative Black Caucus Awards 2010: Mamie Hughes http://www.V-five.com Produced by Elaine Hamilton Shot & Edited by Jordan Kerfeld. Missouri Legislative Black Caucus The Missouri Legislative Black Caucus is an organization representing all African American members of the Missouri Senate and Missouri House of Representatives California Legislative Black Caucus The California Legislative Black Caucus, also known as the LBC, is a California political organization composed of African Americans elected to the California Legislative Black Caucus of Maryland The Legislative Black Caucus of Maryland (also known as The Maryland Legislative Black Caucus) is an American political organization composed of African Pennsylvania Legislative Black Caucus The Pennsylvania Legislative Black Caucus is an American political organization composed of African Americans elected to the Pennsylvania General Assembly Louisiana Legislative Black Caucus The Louisiana Legislative Black Caucus, (also known as the LLBC) is an American political organisation composed of African Americans elected to the Louisiana Virginia Legislative Black Caucus The Virginia Legislative Black Caucus is an American political organization composed of African Americans elected to the Virginia General Assembly. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators Mississippi Legislative Black Caucus Chairperson: Representative Reecy Dickson Nevada Legislative Black Caucus New Jersey Legislative Black Caucus Chairperson:  

Black State Legislators from Reconstruction to the Present

List of African-American officeholders during the Reconstruction http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_African-American_officeholders_during_the_Reconstruction Foner profiles more than 1,500 black legislators, state … Reminiscences of the Last and Present … Southern Black Leaders of the Reconstruction Era … Black Legislators – American Experience | Reconstruction: The … http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/reconstruction/activism/index.html Black Legislators : … they elect hundreds of black legislators to state and national offices, … was a major Reconstruction achievement doomed to fail in a racist era. Black Legislators during Reconstruction | New Georgia … http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/black-legislators-during-reconstruction Black Legislators during Reconstruction. Original entry by. … and the Ku Klux Klan to “redeem” the state. One quarter of the black legislators were killed, … Black legislators, past and present, celebrated in Atlanta exhibit – theGrio http://thegrio.com/2012/04/12/black-legislators-past-and-present-celebrated-in-atlanta-exhibit/ This includes the first black men, who were elected to the Georgia legislature in 1868, but were prohibited from assuming office because of their color. Newspaper article about Senator Leroy Johnson: the first African-American to serve in the Georgia Assembly since the Reconstruction, Photo Credit: Clyde Bradley. The Black Experience – A Guide to African American Resources in the State Library and Archives … http://www.floridamemory.com/collections/blackexperience/ This resource guide is intended to present an overview of the resources that are available for the study of African American history in the State Archives of Florida. Attorney Gen. asks states to restore felon voting right – Bay State Banner – Serving the … http://baystatebanner.com/news/2014/feb/21/attorney-gen-asks-states-restore-felon-voting-righ/ Felony-voter disenfranchisement began after Reconstruction so whites could diminish the voting strength of free black men, Holder said. Tennessee’s African American Legislators of the … http://www.tennessee.gov/tsla/history/blackhistory/resources/BlackLegislators.ppt … p. 3 Although a total of 12 black legislators served in the General … the Tennessee State Library and … American Legislators of the Reconstruction Era … Reconstruction in North Carolina – North Carolina Digital History http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-civilwar/5468 … North Carolina’s African American office holders included 30 state legislators and … the state during the Civil War and Reconstructionpresent ; temporary … RECONSTRUCTION | The Handbook of Texas Online| Texas State http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/mzr01 … but one last step had to be taken to end legislative Reconstruction. … By the end of Reconstruction the state had about a dozen … involved the state’s blackReconstruction in Mississippi, 1865-1876 | Mississippi … http://mshistorynow.mdah.state.ms.us/index.php?id=204 Hiram R. Revels of Natchez was appointed by the predominantly Republican Mississippi LegislatureReconstruction for Mississippi’s black … Mississippi StateReconstruction in the South – Texas Digital Library http://www.tdl.org/txlor-dspace/bitstream/handle/2249.3/624/06_recon_south.htm … served as state legislators. … Black office holders helped to create the new state constitutions and helped govern southern states during Reconstruction. … Black Legislators in Louisiana during Reconstruction Charles Vincent, published 2011, 262 pages Black Reconstruction in America: Toward a History of the Part Which Black … W. E. B. Du Bois, published 2013, 659 pages The Louisiana Legislative Black Caucus: Race and Representation in the … unknown, published 2011, 177 pages Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880 W. E. B. Du Bois, published 1935, 746 pages Black Liberation : A Comparative History of Black Ideologies in the United … George M. Fredrickson Edgar E. Robinson Professor of United States History, published 1995, 400 pages Black Stats: African Americans by the Numbers in the Twenty-first Century Monique Morris, published 2014, 240 pages “Black State Legislators: A Survey and Analysis of Black Leadership in State … David A. Bositis, published 1992, 88 pages African American Legislators in the American States Kerry Lee Haynie, published 2013, 176 pages The Politics of Race: African Americans and the Political System unknown, published 1995, 398 pages Black Legislators in Louisiana during Reconstruction Charles Vincent, published 2011, 262 pages The Kentucky Legislature: Two Decades of Change Malcolm E. Jewell, published unknown, 0 pages The Moulin Rouge and Black Rights in Las Vegas: A History of the First … Earnest N. Bracey, published 2008, 227 pages Black Elected Officials 1999: A Statistical Summary David A. Bositis, published 2001, 20 pages Making a Difference: The Influence of Black State Legislators in Policy Making Guy Earl Wendell DeWeever, published 2000, 538 pages Black Votes Count: Political Empowerment in Mississippi After 1965 Frank R. Parker, published 1990, 254 pages The Louisiana Legislative Black Caucus: Race and Representation in the … unknown, published 2011, 177 pages Politics in the New South: Representation of African Americans in Southern … unknown, published 2012, 244 pages Making a Difference: The Influence of Black State Legislators in Policy Making Guy Earl Wendell DeWeever, published 2000, 538 pages Black Faces in the Mirror: African Americans and Their Representatives in … unknown, published 2003, 213 pages Race, Redistricting, and Representation: The Unintended Consequences of … David T. Canon, published 1999, 324 pages African Americans and Political Participation: A Reference Handbook unknown, published 2003, 400 pages The Way it was in the South: The Black Experience in Georgia Donald Lee Grant, published 1993, 624 pages Comparison of Sources of Information for Black State Legislators Daniel Riffe, published 1990, 26 pages Mississippi Government and Politics: Modernizers Versus Traditionalists Dale Krane, Stephen D. Shaffer, published 1992, 367 pages Black Politicians and Reconstruction in Georgia: A Splendid Failure Edmund L. Drago, published 1982, 211 pages