Reconstruction and Post-Reconstruction

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In many respects, the Reconstruction period in American history was the most promising for African Americans. Understanding the political achievements of African Americans in the period between 1860 and 1880, and the subsequent backlash which wiped all of those achievements (Post-Reconstruction) away, is crucial to the understanding of the movements which came later.

State laws which restricted the newly won freedoms of African Americans became know as the "Black Codes".  These "Black Codes"  played an important role in institutionalizing  Post -Reconstruction, . The laws in many Southern states which still deny hundreds of thousands of African Americans the right to vote on the basis that they are convicted felons are a remnant of the Post-Reconstruction "Black Codes".

Black CodesBlack History – HISTORY.com
http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/black-codes
Find out more about the history of Black Codes, … the stakes of the Civil War changed dramatically. … Black Leaders During Reconstruction. topic. Ulysses S. Grant.

Reconstruction – The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/reconstruction/essays/reconstruction
Southern slave-holders had held the largest slave population in the hemisphere, in an empire that had grown in population through a massive domestic slave trade and in territory through a war with Mexico that determined the future of much of North America.

Encyclopaedia Britannica’s Guide to Black History – The first page of the Fourteenth Amendment to the …
http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-9474682
Nullified by the Thirteenth Amendment, the section of the Constitution apportioning representation in the House of Representatives based on a formula that counted each slave as three-fifths of a person was replaced by a clause in the Fourteenth Amendment specifying that representatives be "apportioned among the several…

Black Reconstruction in America: Toward a History of the Part Which Black …
W. E. B. Du Bois, published 2013, 684 pages

Reconstruction  Racial Relations in America After the Civil WarReconstruction Racial Relations in America After the Civil War

 

Reconstruction of the South After the Civil War, Dr. RMitchell2Reconstruction of the South After the Civil War, Dr. RMitchell2
Comments With Dr. James Haney Presents*Reconstruction of the South After the Civil War, with Dr. RMitchell, Professor and Administrator @ Fisk University and…

 

Up From Slavery (Audio Book) The Reconstruction PeriodUp From Slavery (Audio Book) The Reconstruction Period
Up From Slavery by Booker T. Washington (1856 — 1915) Up From Slavery is the 1901 autobiography of Booker T. Washington detailing his slow and steady rise f…

 

Reconstruction after the Civil War, Third Edition
John Hope Franklin, Michael W. Fitzgerald, published 2012, 296 pages

The Long Reconstruction: The Post-Civil War South in History, Film, and Memory
Frank J. Wetta, Martin A. Novelli, published 2013, 184 pages

The Colfax Massacre : The Untold Story of Black Power, White Terror, and the …
New York City LeeAnna Keith Collegiate School, published 2008, 240 pages

The Empire State of the South: Georgia History in Documents and Essays
unknown, published 2008, 360 pages

In the Wake of Slavery: Civil War, Civil Rights, and the Reconstruction of …
Joseph A. Ranney, published 2006, 199 pages

African American Politics
Kendra King, published 2010, 238 pages

The Fort Pillow Massacre: North, South, and the Status of African Americans …
Bruce Tap, published 2013, 216 pages

What We Dragged Out of Slavery
Claude A. Green, published 2006, 152 pages

Break Those Chains at Last: African Americans 1860-1880
Noralee Frankel, published 1996, 143 pages

 

The Reconstruction Amendments: The 13th, 14th, and 15th AmendmentsThe Reconstruction Amendments: The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
Visit http://www.education-portal.com for thousands more videos like this one. You'll get full access to our interactive quizzes and transcripts and can find…

 

The Dance of Freedom: Texas African Americans during Reconstruction
Barry A. Crouch, published 2009, 0 pages

In the Wake of Slavery: Civil War, Civil Rights, and the Reconstruction of …
Joseph A. Ranney, published 2006, 199 pages

The American Civil War and Reconstruction: People, Politics, and Power
Britannica Educational Publishing, published 2009, 304 pages

Reconstruction: Life After the Civil War
Tim McNeese, published 2009, 0 pages

Charleston, SC, King Street | Flickr - Photo Sharing!Charleston, SC, King Street | Flickr – Photo Sharing!
https://www.flickr.com/photos/hdescopeland/6856023001/

 Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments. In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed

Oklahoma
military during the American Civil War. The Cherokee Nation had an internal civil war. Slavery in Indian Territory was not abolished until 1866. In the period

Ku Klux Klan
African Americans in the South during the Reconstruction Era of the 1860s. The second was a very large controversial nationwide organization in the 1920s

Arkansas
Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. Upon returning to the Union, the state would continue

 

Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden History of Black Organizing and White …
Paul Ortiz, published 2005, 382 pages

The Legal Understanding of Slavery: From the Historical to the Contemporary
unknown, published 2012, 416 pages

Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery
Leon F. Litwack, published 2010, 672 pages

African Americans During Reconstruction
Richard Worth, Philip Schwarz, published 2006, 113 pages

The Two Reconstructions: The Struggle for Black Enfranchisement
Richard M. Valelly, published 2009, 348 pages

Black Legislators in Louisiana during Reconstruction
Charles Vincent, published 2011, 262 pages

 

The Politics of Reconstruction (Reconstruction Part 2)The Politics of Reconstruction (Reconstruction Part 2)
http://www.zaneeducation.com – The Politics of Reconstruction is Part 2 of Reconstruction – an American History title. Explore the rebuilding of the South in…

 Southern Black Codes – Constitutional Rights Foundation
http://www.crf-usa.org/brown-v-board-50th-anniversary/southern-black-codes.html
The Southern “Black Codes” of 1865-66 The end of the Civil War marked the end of slavery for 4 million black Southerners. But the war also left them landless and …

 

Reconstruction Military map

The Reconstruction period is marked by significant legislation, beginning with the First Reconstruction Act in 1867, and several amendments to the US Constitution. This era is fundamental to the understanding of African American political history. It was necessary to impose military rule on the Southern states in order for African Americans to have the right to vote. The hope, and the turmoil which followed, is required reading for all serious students of African American political history.  In this section, we will provide links to resources which help the reader to better understand and research this period.

President Johnson's Reconstruction PlanPresident Johnson's Reconstruction Plan
President Johnson's lenient Reconstruction Plan for the South does not sit well with Republican members of Congress in the North.

 Black Leaders During Reconstruction – American Civil War …
http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/black-leaders-during-reconstruction
Find out more about the history of Black Leaders During Reconstruction, including videos, interesting articles, pictures, historical features and more. Get all the …

Reconstruction Era – Howard University
http://www.howard.edu/library/reference/guides/reconstructionera/default.htm
Black codes were adopted by midwestern states to regulate or inhibit the migration of … Mississippi was the first state to institute laws that abolished the full civil rights of African-Americans. … During the period of Reconstruction, fifty-two of the sixty individuals who … More than 100 blacks held public office after the Civil War.

Reconstruction Era – Howard University
http://www.howard.edu/library/reference/guides/reconstructionera/default.htm
Black codes were adopted by midwestern states to regulate or inhibit the migration of … Mississippi was the first state to institute laws that abolished the full civil rights of African-Americans. … During the period of Reconstruction, fifty-two of the sixty individuals who … More than 100 blacks held public office after the Civil War.

Black Reconstruction in America – International Socialist Review
http://www.isreview.org/issues/57/feat-reconstruction.shtml
Negroes were responsible for bad government during Reconstruction. …. Thus, the history of the Civil War and Reconstruction is complex, and Black Reconstruction is an …. After the war that property value was completely erased. ….. the vote, they simply shot and killed Black officeholders and replaced them with white men.

 

Reconstruction and the Black CodesReconstruction and the Black Codes

 

A History of the Negro in America: The Civil War and ReconstructionA History of the Negro in America: The Civil War and Reconstruction
This video clip from a Black American history series talks about the election of Abraham Lincoln. CREATED BY U.S. Information Agency. (1982 – 10/01/1999 ) US…

 

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Reconstruction – American Civil War – HISTORY.com
http://www.history.com/topics
Find out more about the history of Reconstruction, including videos, interesting articles, pictures, historical features and more. Get all … Despite gaining their freedom, African-Americans face struggles in the years after the Civil War. Contents.

Sharecropping – Black History – HISTORY.com
http://www.history.com/topics
Black Codes, Slavery, Civil Rights Movement, Black History. Contents. “Forty Acres and a Mule”; Labor Struggles in the Reconstruction Era; Rise of the … of freed men 40 acres each of the abandoned land left in the wake of his army. During Reconstruction, however, the conflict over labor resulted in the sharecropping system, in which black families would rent small plots of land in return for a portion of their crop, to be given to the landowner at the end of each year. Advertisement …

North Carolinians in the Era of the Civil War and Reconstruction
unknown, published 2008, 307 pages

Encyclopedia of the Reconstruction Era: M-Z and primary documents
unknown, published 2006, 864 pages

The Age of Lincoln

Eric Foner on the 13th, 14th, and 15th AmendmentsEric Foner on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
Interviews with the author of GIVE ME LIBERTY! AN AMERICAN HISTORY Question: Overall, can you comment on the Reconstruction amendments and the way in which t…

 

Episode 8 (Segment 1): The Reconstruction Amendments--A Glimmer of HopeEpisode 8 (Segment 1): The Reconstruction Amendments–A Glimmer of Hope
In this episode, we will assess fruits of that struggle. What did ?freedom? mean for former slaves? How did black women fare in the period of reconstruction?…

Orville Vernon Burton, published 2008, 432 pages

Race and Racism in the United States: An Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic …
unknown, published 2014, 1771 pages

West from Appomattox: The Reconstruction of America After the Civil War
Heather Cox Richardson, published 2007, 396 pages

Historical Dictionary of the Civil War and Reconstruction
William L. Richter, published 2004, 968 pages

Civil Rights Amendments and Jim CrowCivil Rights Amendments and Jim Crow
Check out mrdickey.net 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to The Constitution. Jim Crow Laws. Plessy v. Ferguson. Poll Tax. Literacy Tax. Grandfather Clause.

 Reconstruction Amendments
The Reconstruction Amendments are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870

Southern Claims Commission
Arkansas, and Texas) filed claims with the Southern Claims Commission from 1871 to 1873 if they: were loyal to the United States during the Civil War

Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era
Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era deals with the efforts made by Southern states of the former Confederacy at the turn of the 20th century in the United States

Fifteenth Amendment – Black History – HISTORY.com
http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/fifteenth-amendment
The 15th Amendment, granting African-American men the right to vote, was formally adopted into the U.S. Constitution on March 30, 1870. Passed by Congress …

Reconstruction Amendments | Slavery By Another Name Bento | PBS
http://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/themes/reconstruction-amendments/
The Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendment make up the Reconstruction Amendments, created to establish equality for black Americans.

Reconstruction Amendments | The Black Past: Remembered and …
http://www.blackpast.org/primary/reconstruction-amendments
Amendments 13-15 are called the Reconstruction Amendments both because … section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th amendment.

Voting Rights and the 14th Amendment | Teachinghistory.org
http://teachinghistory.org/history-content/ask-a-historian/23652
What did the 15th Amendment add that wasn't in the 14th? … of interests, goals, and motivations continued throughout the Reconstruction period after the war.

Texas Politics – Reconstruction and the Civil War Amendments
http://texaspolitics.utexas.edu/archive/html/cons/features/0206_01/slide1.html
Context and Constitutional Amendments … type would have been unimaginable during this period – as the post-Reconstruction period amply illustrated. … of slavery), 14th (due process and other clauses) and 15th amendments (suffrage for …

The Triumph of Congressional Reconstruction – Boundless
https://www.boundless.com/u-s-history/textbooks/boundless-u-s-history-textbook/reconstruction-1865-1877-19/reconstruction-in-the-south-140/the-triumph-of-congressional-reconstruction-742-549/
Radical Reconstruction was a period of the Reconstruction Era during which the … The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, also known as the Reconstruction …

Helping to Move On? An Analysis of the Reconstruction Amendments
http://www.umbc.edu/che/tahlessons/lessondisplay.php%3Flesson%3D66
In this lesson students will read and scrutinize the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to decide if the amendments had political, economic, and/ or …

Background of the 15th Amendment – United States American History
http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h415.html
The 15th Amendment was the last of the “Reconstruction Amendments” to be adopted. … states, and it did encourage voting by blacks in the South for a period of time. … The Powers of Congress under the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

15th Amendment to the Constitution – Library of Congress
http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/15thamendment.html
15th Amendment to the Constitution: Primary Documents of American History … Primary Documents >> Civil War and Reconstruction >> 15th Amendment …

The Meaning of Emancipation in the Reconstruction Era
http://investigatinghistory.ashp.cuny.edu/m6.html
Once former slaves were granted rights under the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments to the Constitution, would (or could) the federal government enforce those …

Race and Voting in the Segregated South – Constitutional Rights …
http://www.crf-usa.org/black-history-month/race-and-voting-in-the-segregated-south
This, in fact, is what happened to African-American citizens living in the South following Civil War Reconstruction. Despite the 14th and 15th Amendments …

The Powers of Congress under the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
http://law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/powers13th14th15th.htm
Cases, notes, questions, and images relating to the enforcement powers of Congress under the Civil War amendments.

 

Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877
Eric Foner, published 2011, 736 pages

Black Southerners and the Law, 1865-1900
unknown, published 1994, 469 pages

African American Southerners in Slavery, Civil War, and Reconstruction
Claude H. Nolen, published 2001, 223 pages

Nothing But Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy
unknown, published 2007, 168 pages

Eric Foner on Changing Views of ReconstructionEric Foner on Changing Views of Reconstruction
The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, http://www.gilderlehrman.org/, presents historian Eric Foner on changing views on Reconstruction.

 

Reconstruction II (1865-1877)Reconstruction II (1865-1877)
Second in a series on the Reconstruction Period (1865-1877) and the election of 1876 which ended Reconstruction.

 

Black Codes of 1865 in 2012 - Marissa AlexanderBlack Codes of 1865 in 2012 – Marissa Alexander
(Black Codes of 1865 in 2012) The Black Codes were laws in the United States after the Civil War with the effect of limiting the basic human rights and civil…

 

Seizing the New Day: African Americans in Post-Civil War Charleston
Wilbert L. Jenkins, published 2003, 238 pages

Black Southerners and the Law, 1865-1900
unknown, published 1994, 469 pages

Seizing the New Day: African Americans in Post-Civil War Charleston
Wilbert L. Jenkins, published 2003, 238 pages

 

Reconstruction AmendmentsReconstruction Amendments
Discussion on the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments– Created using PowToon — Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/ . Make your own animated videos and anima…

 

Lysistrata in the South? Freedwomen's political activism …
http://aaihs.org/
Freedwomen's political activism during Reconstruction … And when emancipation placed freedmen in nominal legal “possession” of their families, sexual violence against black women after the war often indirectly targeted black men. … Elsa Barclay Brown pioneered this approach, arguing that freedpeople in Reconstruction Richmond viewed the vote not as the property of individual black men, but as a family and community right, which black men exercised on behalf …

Black Codes, Jim Crow, and Obama: The History of Voter …
http://mysticpolitics.com/
How have the Black Codes and Jim Crow Laws of the post-civil war reconstruction facilitated today's voter manipulation and electoral fraud? … Black republicans sent chills down the spine of white supremacist democrats who publicly denounced and feared “negro domination” in American electoral politics. While … During this period it is more of a matter of who COULD vote. … I wonder what the antagonists of the newly emancipated would say if they could have seen Obama in office.

24. Retreat from Reconstruction: The Grant Era and Paths to 24. Retreat from Reconstruction: The Grant Era and Paths to "Southern Redemption"
The Civil War and Reconstruction (HIST 119) This lecture opens with a discussion of the myriad moments at which historians have declared an "end" to Reconstr…

 

Background of the Reconstruction Period (clip)Background of the Reconstruction Period (clip)
This film describes the rebuilding of post-Civil War South, specifically the economy, state and local governments, social structure and the establishing of r…

 

Black History: Reconstruction | The Bilerico Project
http://www.bilerico.com/
click to enlarge Reconstruction is the period from 1863 to 1877, when the government of the United States attempted to resolve the issues of the American Civil War (1861-1865), after the Confederacy was defeated and slavery ended. … Through the enactment of disfranchising statutes and constitutions, and extralegal means, the white Democrats subsequently removed most blacks and hundreds of thousands of poor whites from voter rolls in every Southern state.

 

Reconstruction  The Second Civil War {1 of 2} (Full Documentary)Reconstruction The Second Civil War {1 of 2} (Full Documentary)
Reconstruction The Second Civil War {1 of 2} (Full Documentary) Reconstruction The Second Civil War {1 of 2} (Full Documentary) Reconstruction The Second Civ…